Catholic Faith Defender

JOHN. 8:32 “et cognoscetis veritatem et veritas liberabit vos”

Doctrinal Comparison

Posted by catholicfaithdefender on April 5, 2008

Doctrinal Comparison

The following is a comparison of doctrine between the times of the apostles and early Church Fathers (Apostolic Teaching), the teachings of the Catholic Church (Catholicism), Biblical References, and the general understanding of this same doctrine by most Protestant denominations (Protestantism). The Apostolic Teachings preceded the formation of the New Testament canon, which was not formally recognized until after the Councils of Hippo (393 a.d.) and Carthage (397 a.d.).

Eucharist

Apostolic Teaching

True Body and Blood of Christ under the appearance of bread and wine.

Catholicism

True Body and Blood of Christ under the appearance of bread and wine.

Biblical References

Matthew 26:26, Mark 14:22, Luke 22:19, John 6:35,41,51-58, 1 Corinthians 11:27-29.

Protestantism

Christ present only as symbol. Some Anglicans (Episcopals) hold Catholic position (transubstantiation); Lutherans approach Catholic teaching (consubstantiation).


Penance

Apostolic Teaching

Christ gave Apostles and successors power to forgive and retain sins.

Catholicism

Christ gave Apostles and successors power to forgive and retain sins.

Biblical References

John 20:23, 2 Corinthians 5:18.

Protestantism

Rejection of Catholic claim.


Marriage

Apostolic Teaching

Valid marriage indissoluble.

Catholicism

Valid marriage indissoluble.

Biblical References

Matthew 5:32 and 19:9, Mark 10:2-12, Luke 16:18, 1 Corinthians 7:10.

Protestantism

Divorce permitted.


Biblical Interpretation

Apostolic Teaching

Interpreted by Church.

Catholicism

Interpreted by Church.

Biblical References

2 Peter 3:16, Acts 8:30-31, 2 Peter 1:20-21.

Protestantism

Private Interpretation.


Papacy

Apostolic Teaching

Christ chose Peter and meant for him to have successors.

Catholicism

Pope successor of Peter.

Biblical References

Matthew 16:18-19. St. Irenaeus of Lyons, who lived around 140-202 a.d., wrote, “The blessed Apostles (Peter and Paul), having founded and built up the Church (of Rome), handed over the office of the episcopate to Linus. Paul makes mention of this Linus in the Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy 4:21). To him succeeded Anacletus; and after him, in the third place from the apostles, Clement was chosen for the episcopate. He had seen the blessed Apostles and was acquainted with them. It might be said that He still heard the echoes of the preaching of the Apostles, and had their traditions before his eyes. And not only he, for there were many still remaining who had been instructed by the Apostles.” St. Irenaeus then goes on to list eight more Popes in the line of succession from Peter and ends with: “In this order, and by the teaching of the Apostles handed down in the Church, the preaching of the truth has come down to us.”

Protestantism

Catholic claim denied.


Infallibility

Apostolic Teaching

Christ grants to Church.

Catholicism

Pope and bishops infallible in matters of faith and morals when specific conditions have been met.

Biblical References

Matthew 16:18 and 28:20, Mark 16:15, Luke 10:16, 1 Timothy 3:15.

Protestantism

Catholic claim denied.

__________________________________________________________

Abortion

Apostolic Teaching

“Do not kill a fetus by abortion or commit infanticide” (Didache).

Catholicism

Absolutely forbidden, no exceptions.

Biblical References

Exodus 20:13, Deuteronomy 5:17.

Protestantism

Until August 14, 1930, all Christian churches were unanimous in their opposition to artificial means of birth prevention. However, the first crack in the dam was Resolution 15 of the Anglican Bishop’s Lambeth Conference of August 15, 1930. The National Council of Churches (NCC) proclaimed on 23 February 1961 that “Most of the Protestant churches hold contraception and periodic abstinence to be morally right when the motives are right … Protestant Christians are agreed in condemning abortion or any method which destroys human life, except when the health or life of the mother is at stake.” As the 20th Century draws to a close, almost all of the mainline Protestant denominations (to include Methodist, Church of Christ, Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Lutheran) accept not only contraception, but abortion for almost all reasons. There are some exceptions.

Tradition

Apostolic Teaching

Cited as rule by Apostles.

Catholicism

Source of faith with Scripture.

Biblical References

1 Corinthians 15:3,11, 2 Timothy 2:2, 1 Corinthians 11:2. The word “tradition” comes from the Latin meaning “handing over”. Catholics believe that Sacred Scripture is “the speech of God as it is put down in writing under the breath of the Holy Spirit.” We further believe that Holy Tradition “transmits in its entirety the Word of God which has been entrusted to the apostles by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit. It transmits it to the successors of the apostles so that, enlightened by the Spirit of truth, they may faithfully preserve, expound, and spread it abroad by their preaching.” As a result the Church, to whom the transmission and interpretation of Revelation is entrusted, “does not derive her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures alone. Both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honored with equal sentiments of devotion and reverence.” Catechism of the Catholic Church, para 81-82.

Protestantism

Generally denied.

Conclusion

The Catholic Church teachings today are the same as they were during the time of the apostles and early Church Fathers and are consistent with Holy Scripture.

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